245,613,043 (July 2011 est.)
0-14 years: 27.3% (male 34,165,213/female 32,978,841)
15-64 years: 66.5% (male 82,104,636/female 81,263,055)
65 years and over: 6.1% (male 6,654,695/female 8,446,603) (2011 est.)
total: 28.2 years
male: 27.7 years
female: 28.7 years (2011 est.)
Population growth rate
1.069% (2011 est.)
18.1 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
6.26 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
Net migration rate
-1.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
urban population: 44% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.7% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 27.95 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 32.63 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 23.03 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 71.33 years
male: 68.8 years
female: 73.99 years (2011 est.)
Total fertility rate
2.25 children born/woman (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.2% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
310,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
8,300 (2009 est.)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: chikungunya, dengue fever, and malaria
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9% (2000 census)
Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census)
Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.4%
female: 86.8% (2004 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2009)
2.8% of GDP (2008)
Maternal mortality rate
240 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
5.5% of GDP (2009)
0.288 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
Hospital bed density
0.6 beds/1,000 population (2002)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
According to a 2003 count, Indonesia is home to 234,893,453 people, making it the world's fourth most populous nation after China, India and United States. The work force (15-64 yrs of age) is 65.4 percent of the total population and consists of 76,743,613 males and 76,845,245 females.
The implementation of a comprehensive family planning program over the last three decades has resulted in controlled population growth. The growth rate has fallen from over 2.3 percent in 1972 to 1.5 percent in 2003.
A Diverse Nation
In its ethnic groups, languages, culture, and religion, Indonesia is a very diverse nation. This great diversity is reflected in the country's national motto Bhinneka Tunggal Ika which means "Unity in Diversity."
Some 300 ethnic groups call Indonesia home, but most (45 percent) of Indonesians are Javanese. In addition, 14 percent are Sundanese, 7.5 percent Madurese, 7.5 percent coastal Malays, and 26 percent are of other ethnic groups.
There are more than 700 languages and dialects spoken in the archipelago. They normally belong to the different ethnic groups of the population. Some of the distinctly different local languages are: Acehnese, Batak, Sundanese, Javanese, Sasak, Tetum of Timor, Dayak, Minahasa, Toraja, Buginese, Halmahera, Ambonese, Ceramese, and several Irianese languages. To make the picture even more colorful, these languages are also spoken in different dialects.
Bahasa Indonesia is the national language. It is similar to Malay and written in Roman script based on European orthography. English is the most prevalent foreign language. Also, some Dutch is still spoken and understood in the bigger cities and French increasing in its popularity at the better hotels and restaurants.
Indonesia's active history has encouraged the growth of many unique cultures. On Java, the Javanese of Central and East Java are known for having several layers of formality in their language. In Javanese, to speak to a boss and then to a child is like speaking two different languages. The Toraja of Sulawesi are famous for their elaborate funeral ceremonies. Often several days long, these ceremonies bring the whole village together in a feast, a procession, and a hillside burial. And the Minangkabau of Sumatra still maintain a matrilineal society. Everything from houses to animals is inherited from mother to daughter.
Today, the country maintains this cultural richness, even as it expands into new areas. The traditional music of the gamelan and angklung coexists with new dangdut and rock and roll. The ancient art of wayang kulit, or shadow puppetry, complements the modern Indonesian film industry. And, while the themes and story from historic epics like the Ramayana persist, newer literature like that of the author Pramoedya Ananta Toer has become an irrevocable part of Indonesian culture.
Six world religions are formally recognized in Indonesia: Islam, Catholicism, Protestantism, Confucianism, Hinduism and Buddhism. Nevertheless, other faiths can be found, especially in isolated societies. These religions, called traditional faiths, are also accepted. According to recent counts, approximately 85 percent of the population is Muslim, 11 percent is Christian (Protestants and Catholics), and 4 percent is Hindu, Buddhist, Confucian, or traditional.